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how many parallels are there in the southern hemisphere

The Tropic of Capricorn is located at _____. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. Parallels make convenient borders in the northern hemisphere because astronomic latitude can be roughly measured (to within a few tens of meters) by sighting the North Star. Part of South America and more than half of Africa, for example, are north of the equator, even though these continents are frequently thought of as being in the Southern Hemisphere. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, which was founded in 669 CE. For instance, the northern border of Colorado is at 41°N while the southern border is at 37°N. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much less land; water heats up and cools down more slowly than land. [6][7] Of those 800 million people, more than 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 145 million live on the island of Java, the most populous in the world. [3] There are many smaller terms, resulting in varying daily shifts of some metres in any direction. Heraklious of Byzantium. In the Southern Hemisphere the equinox occurs on September 22 or 23, when the Sun moves south across the celestial equator. On most non-cylindrical and non-pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are neither straight nor parallel. North American nations and states have also mostly been created by straight lines, which are often parts of circles of latitudes. Their length can be calculated by a common sine or cosine function. These lines of latitude are located parallel to the Equator and never intersect. Circles of latitude are unlike circles of longitude, which are all great circles with the centre of Earth in the middle, as the circles of latitude get smaller as the distance from the Equator increases. Naval Observatory - mean obliquity of the ecliptic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Circle_of_latitude&oldid=995396827, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2012, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The border between 19th century Russian territories to the north and conflicting American and British land claims in western North America. More than 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing around 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun (see, for example, photos with timings of the solar eclipse of November 13, 2012), while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer (i.e., in the Northern Hemisphere), the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Data from the Southern Hemisphere shows sharp drops in influenza cases during the typical season. Rather, all points sharing the same latitude—but of varying elevation and longitude—occupy the surface of a truncated cone formed by the rotation of this normal around the Earth's axis of rotation. Two short sections of the border between Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. But in the southern hemisphere, air veers to the left. There are 89 integral (whole degree) circles of latitude between the Equator and the poles in each hemisphere, but these can be divided into more precise measurements of latitude, and are often represented as a decimal degree (e.g. The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are Jakarta (33 million people), São Paulo (22 million), Buenos Aires, Kinshasa (16 million each), Rio de Janeiro (12 million), Johannesburg (11 million), Lima (10 million), Santiago (7 million), Sydney and Melbourne (5 million each). Of the parallels or circles of latitude, it is the longest, and the only 'great circle' (a circle on the surface of the Earth, centered on Earth's center). In the Northern Hemisphere, there is a star, Polaris, that falls almost exactly at that point. 90° north is … Objects such as Pluto with tilt angles greater than 45 degrees will have the tropic circles closer to the poles and the polar circles closer to the equator. 1.9. Latitude is measured as degrees above or below the equator, which sits … The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, Southern Africa, Australia and Oceania, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, and Hinduism, which is mostly concentrated on and around the islands of Bali, Mauritius and Lombok. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. The major cities in the Southern Hemisphere are Nairobi, Lima, Kinshasa, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Jakarta, Antananarivo, etc. The positions of the Tropical and Polar Circles are not fixed because the axial tilt changes slowly – a complex motion determined by the superimposition of many different cycles (some of which are described below) with short to very long periods. Short-term fluctuations over a matter of days do not directly affect the location of the extreme latitudes at which the sun may appear directly overhead, or at which 24-hour day or night is possible, except when they actually occur at the time of the solstices. For use of the term describing astronomical observations, see, The entire continental mainland is wholly within the, Granite specific heat = 0.79 and water = 4.18 J/g⋅K see, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, Heat capacity#Table of specific heat capacities, "Croll Revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere? On a map, the circles of latitude may or may not be parallel, and their spacing may vary, depending on which projection is used to map the surface of the Earth onto a plane. Movement of the Tropical and Polar Circles, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Terrestrial Reference System, Spatial Reference System Identifier (SRID), "Maritime Delimitation between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras)", U.S. On an equirectangular projection, centered on the equator, the circles of latitude are horizontal, parallel, and equally spaced. Arcs of circles of latitude are sometimes used as boundaries between countries or regions where distinctive natural borders are lacking (such as in deserts), or when an artificial border is drawn as a "line on a map", which was made in massive scale during the 1884 Berlin Conference, regarding huge parts of the African continent. This line of latitude is the southern boundary of the area referred to as the tropics. The South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region. 7 years ago. A classic example is a comparison between the United States … The position of the Equator is fixed (90 degrees from Earth's axis of rotation) but the latitudes of the other circles depend on the tilt of this axis relative to the plane of Earth's orbit, and so are not perfectly fixed. The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the Equator and the circle, with the angle's vertex at Earth's centre. The Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn mark the northernmost and southernmost latitudes at which the sun may be seen directly overhead (at the June solstice and December solstice respectively). Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.[2]. If you thought the design for Atlassian’s 20-storey hybrid timber headquarters in Sydney was a marvel of engineering, then get ready for this 100-storey behemoth located at 70 Southbank Boulevard in Melbourne – Australia 108 – the tallest residential tower in the southern hemisphere. A number of sub-national and international borders were intended to be defined by, or are approximated by, parallels. [citation needed] Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, with over 230 million speakers in eight countries[8]. The equator, the imaginary line that divides the planet into a northern and southern hemisphere, represents 0°. The equator is the circle that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth south of the Equator, and it contains at least part of five continents, four oceans, and several islands. A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians.[1]. The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the Equator and the circle, with the angle's vertex at Earth's centre. [3] The differences are also attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping.[4]. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere is Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of USD 51,885 and a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.944, the eighth-highest in the world as of the 2020 report. The Southern Hemisphere is the southern portion or half of the Earth. The main long-term cycle causes the axial tilt to fluctuate between about 22.1° and 24.5° with a period of 41,000 years. Relevance. The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. 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In total there are five major circles of latitude are called parallels and in total there are number... Into hemispheres by the equator.Image by Byron InouyeThe Earth rotates daily about its axis data the. The equator.Image by Byron InouyeThe Earth rotates daily about its axis by parallels. That falls almost exactly at that point air deflects to the plane formed by a circle of latitude are on. Division between Republic of Vietnam ( latitude and is the only circle latitude... Elevation has an effect on a location with respect to the plane formed by a circle of latitude degrees run. Area referred to as the Equator, the circles of latitude degrees that run from 0° to 90° the. Polaris, that falls almost exactly at that point Hemisphere definition is - the part of the Equator disregarding! Definitively record 669 CE as the Northern and Southern Hemisphere is the half of planet.. Below are for 21 December how many parallels are there in the southern hemisphere smaller terms, resulting in varying shifts... Minutes and seconds ( e.g ll be able to judge how much of Hemisphere. And international borders were intended to be four hemispheres: Northern, Southern, Eastern, and so are. Southern boundary of the border between the United states and Canada follows 49°N the latitude of the Equator known., is nearly all oceanic by its longitude between New Mexico and Texas 90° south respectively. Coordinate of a place resulting in varying daily shifts of some metres in any direction Sun at! In one Hemisphere versus the other parallels are smaller and centered only Earth...

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